by 1791. The unique economic profile, with many small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly-skilled trades, encouraged high levels of innovation and creativity, and supplied a resilient and varied economic base for an industrial prosperity that was to remain into the final quarter of the 20th century. People are known as 'Brummies', a term adopted from the city's nickname of 'Brum'. This may originate from the city's dialect name, Brummagem, which may in turn have been derived from one of the city's earlier names, 'Bromwicham'.
Peter de Birmingham, holder of the manor of Birmingham in 1166, was awarded a royal charter to organise a market in his castle, which in time became known as the Bull Ring, transforming from a village to a market town.
By the 1820s, an extensive canal system had been constructed, giving greater access to natural resources to fuel to industries. Railways arrived in 1837. Birmingham was granted city status in 1889 by Queen Victoria and in 1900 the city established it's own university. Birmingham has recently been transformed, with new squares like Centenary Square and Millenium Place . Canals, old streets and buildings have been renewed. The Bull ring has been redeveloped and the pedestrian subways removed. The Big City Plan was the name of the redevelopment.
Birmingham has the Project Kingfisher, Woodgate Valley Country Park, Handsworth Park and Small Heath Park.
It was in Birmingham that two of Britain's biggest banks were established - Midland Bank (now HSBC Bank) in 1836 and in 1765 Lloyds Bank - also the world's first building society, Ketley's Building Society in 1775.
Birmingham was ranked in 2004 as the thrid best place to shop in the UK, depicted as a "world-class shopping centre". Birmingham has Harmonic Festival, the Mostly Jazz Festival and the annual International Jazz Festival.
Symphony Hall resides at the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra. Other music venues include The National Indoor Arena, O2 Academy, The CBSO Centre, HMV Institute and the Adrian Boult Hall. Birmingham Repertory Theatre was founded in 1913. Other theatre companies include the Birmingham Stage Company, the Maverick Theatre Company, Stan's Cafe and Banner Theatre. The Birmingham Hippodrome and Alexandra Theatre host large-scale touring productions. Professional drama is performed on stages such as the Old Rep, the Crescent Theatre, the Custard Factory, the Old Joint Stock Theatre, the Blue Orange Theatre, The Drum and the Mac.
The Birmingham Royal Ballet is one of the UK's three major ballet companies. Elmhurst School for Dance is the oldest vocational dance school in the country. Prize-winning novelists Clare Morrall, Austin Clarke and Catherine O'Flynn came from the leading publisher Tindal Street Press. The Birmingham School of Art and The Royal Birmingham Society of Artists caused Birmingham an integral centre of Victorian art, particularly within the Pre-Raphaelite and Arts and Crafts movements. Birmingham has supported strong local traditions of product and graphic design in it's role as a printing and manufacturing centre. Iconic works by Birmingham designers include the Baskerville font, Ruskin Pottery, the Acme Thunderer whistle, the Art Deco branding of the Odeon Cinemas and the Mini. The Museum of the Jewellery Quarter, Sarehole Mill, Aston Hall, Soho House and Blakesley Hall are other museums in Birmingham. One museum is Cadbury Word reveals the levels of chocolate assembly and the background of the chocolate and the company. The Ikon Gallery has displays of contemporary art.
Birmingham's leading science museum is Thinktank , with the world's oldest operational steam engine, a collection including the Smethwick Engine, a planetarium and an IMAX cinema. Other festivals include Birmingham Comedy Festival, Moseley Folk Festival, Off The Cuff Festival and the Birmingham International Jazz Festival. The biennial International Dance Festival Birmingham was composed by DanceXchange and involves indoor and outdoor venues. The UK's biggest outdoor Christmas market is Birmingham's Frankfurt Christmas Market, and is the largest German market outside of Austria and Austria, attracting 3.1 million. Spagetti Junction, in Birmingham, is the well known motorway junction in the UK. Birmingham is famed for having more miles of canal than Venice. The world's first league football contest - The Football League - was organised by Birmingham resident and Aston Villa director William McGregor. Birmingham is the only English city outside London to have three Michelin starred restaurants: Simpson's in Edgbaston, Turners in Harborne and Purnell's.
The Electric Cinema on Station Street is the oldest working cinema in the UK. Previously located at the Pebble Mill Studios in Edgbaston, the location for the national headquarters of BBC English Regions, BBC West Midlands and the BBC Birmingham network production centre in now The Mailbox. The most significant scientific breakthroughs and inventions have come from Birmingham, such as, the magnetron, the first cotton Roller Spinning machine, gas lighting, radiography, custard powder, Brylcreem and the first hole-in-the-heart operation in the UK, at Birmingham Children's Hospital.